小升初英语语法知识点总结.doc

发布于:2021-10-23 01:54:23

小升初英语语法知识点总结
卓越教育 Outstanding Education 小学英语语法知识点总结 一、名词 (一)可数名词:表示可以具体个别存在的人或物。可数名词有单复数形式,其 单数形式与 不定冠词 a(n)连用。
可数名词复数规则: 1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds 2.以 s. ss. x. sh. ch 结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches, glass-glasses 3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变 y 为 i, 再加 -es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries, city-cities, body-bodies 4.以“f 或 fe”结尾,变 f 或 fe 为 v, 再加-es,如: knife-knives, leaf——leaves, wife-wives, half-halves 5.不规则名词复 数:① child → children, mouse → mice ② man → men, woman → women, policeman → policemen ③ tomato → tomatoes, potato → potatoes [注]: 初中英语以 o 结尾的名词变复数时只有这两个词加-es,其余的加-s 如:photo → photos ] ④ foot → feet, tooth → teeth [注: oo 变成 ee。] ⑤ fish , sheep, Chinese, Japanese 单、复数同形 [注:变复数时词形不变。] ⑥ people 单数形式表示复数意义, 要求谓语动词用复数; people 的复数形式 peoples 通常指“多个民族”。 *题: 写出下列各词的复数 I _________him _________this ___________her ______ watch _______child _______photo ________diary ______ day________ foot________ book_______ dress ________ tooth_______ sheep ______box_______ strawberry _____ peach______ sandwich ______dish_______bus_______ man______ woman_______ (二)不可 数名词:表示不能个别存在的事物,如液体类,气体类的物质;少数固体类的物 质 (grass 草, ice 冰) , 抽象的名词 (help 帮助, music 音乐) 。 不 可数名词没有复数 (如 some water),不能与不定冠词连用。 (三)名词所有 格: 1、名词所有格表示所属关系,相当于物主代词,在句中作定语、宾语或主语。 (1)表示人或其它有生命的东西的名词常在词尾加’s。如:Children’s Day(儿 童节), my sister’s book(我姐姐的书) (2)以 s 或 es 结尾的复数名词。只 在词尾加’。如:Teachers’ Day(教师节) (3)有些表示时间、距离以及世界、 国家、城镇等无生命的名词,也可在词尾加’s. 如: today’s newspaper(今天 的报纸), ten minutes’ break(十分钟的课间休息), China’s population(中 国的人口). 1

卓越教育 Outstanding Education (4)无论表示有生命还是无生命的东西的名词,一般均可用介词 of 短语来表示 所有关系。 如:a fine daughter of the Party(党的好女儿). 2、[注]:①’ s 还可以表示某人的家或者某个店铺,如:my aunt’s(我阿姨家), the doctor’ s(诊所) ② 两人共有某物时,可以采用 A and B’s 的形式, 如:Lucy and Lily’ s bedroom ③ “of+名词所有格/名词性物主代词”, 称为双重所有格,如:a friend of my father’s (我父亲的一位朋友), a friend of mine(我的一位朋 友)
二、人称代词和物主代词 1、人称代词主格和宾格的区别:主格通常位于句中第一个动词之前(有时候位 于 than 之 后),宾格一般位于动词或介词之后。 2、物主代词形容词性与名词 性的区别:形容词性用时后面一般要带上名词,名词性则单独 使用,后面不带 名词。 人称代词 主格 我 你,你们 他 她 它 我们 他(她,它)们 I you he she it we they 宾格 me you him her it us them 我的 你的,你们的 他的 她 的 它的 我们的 他(她,它)们的 物主代词 形容词性 my your his her its our their 名词性 mine yours his hers its ours theirs
【注】:人称代词有主格和宾格之分,一般动词前用主格,动词后用宾格。 物主 代词一般看后面有没有名词,如有,就用形容词性物主代词(短的); 如无,就用 名词性物主代词(长的)。 *题:用所给词的适当形式填空 1. That is not _________ kite. That kite is very small, but _________ is very big. ( I ) 2. The dress is _________. Give it to _________. ( she ) 3. Is this _________ watch? (you) No, it’s not _________ . ( I ) 4. _________ is my brother. _________ name is Jack. Look! Those stamps are _________. ( he )
三、一般现在时 (一)一般现在时的功能 1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue. 天空是蓝色的。 2.表示经常性或*惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day. 我天天六点起床。 3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun. 地 球绕着太阳转。 (二) 一般现在时的构成 1. be 动词:主语+ be(am,is,are)+ 其它。如: I am a boy. 我是一个男孩。 2.行为动词:主语+ 行为动词+( 其 它)。如:We study English. 我们学*英语。 【注】 当主语为第三人称单数 (he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。 如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。 2

卓越教育 Outstanding Education (三)一般现在时的变化 1. be 动词的变化。 ① 否定句:主语+be+not+其它。 如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。 ②一般疑问句:Be+主语+其它。如:-Are you a student? -Yes. I am. / No, I'm not. ③特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词 +一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike? 2.行为动词的变化。 ① 否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't )+动词原形+( 其它)。如: I don't like bread. ② 当主语为第三人称单数时, 要用 doesn't 构成否定句。 如:He doesn't often play. ③ 一般疑问句:Do( Does )+主语+动词原形+其它。 如: - Do you often play football? - Yes, I do. / No, I don't. 当 主语为第三人称单数时,要用 does 构成一般疑问句。如: - Does she go to work by bike? - Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't. ④ 特殊疑问句:疑问词 +一般疑问句。如:How does your father go to work? 动词+s 的变化规则 1.一 般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks 2. 以 s. x. sh. ch. o 结 尾, 加-es, 如: guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes 3.以 “辅音字母+y”结尾,变 y 为 i, 再加-es,如:study-studies *题:一般现 在时用法专练 一、 写出下列动词的第三人称单数 drink ________ go _______ stay ________ make ________ look _________ have_______ pass_______ carry ____ come________ watch______ plant_______ fly ________ study_______ brush________ do_________ teach_______ wash_______ 二、用括号内动词的 适当形式填空。 1. He often ________(have) dinner at home. 2. Daniel and Tommy _______(be) in Class One. 3. We _______(not watch) TV on Monday. 4. Nick _______(not go) to the zoo on Sunday. 5. ______ they ________(like) the World Cup? 6. What _______they often _______(do) on Saturdays? 7. _______ your parents _______(read) newspapers every day? 8. The girl _______(teach) us English on Sundays. 9. She and I ________(take) a walk together every evening. 10. There ________(be) some water in the bottle. 11. Mike _______(like) cooking. 12. They _______(have) the same hobby. 13. My aunt _______(look) after her baby carefully. 14. You always _______(do) your homework well. 15. I _______(be) ill. I’m staying in bed. 16. She _______(go) to school from Monday to Friday. 3

卓越教育 Outstanding Education 17. 18. 19. 20. Liu Tao _______(do) not like PE. The child often _______(watch) TV in the evening. Su Hai and Su Yang _______(have) eight lessons this term. -What day _______(be) it today? - It’s Saturday
四、现在进行时 1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活 动 或现阶段正在进行的动作。2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为 be+动词 ing. 3.现在进行时的否定句在 be 后加 not。 4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把 be 动 词调到句首。 5.现在进行时的特殊疑问句的基本结构为:疑问词 + be + 主语 + 动词 ing? 但疑问词当主语时其结构为:疑问词 + be + 动词 ing? 动词加 ing 的变化规则 (1)一般情况下,直接加 ing,如:cook-cooking (2)以不 发音的 e 结尾,去 e 加 ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting (3)如果末 尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加 ing, 如: run-running, stop-stopping *题:现在进行时专项练*: 一、写出下列动词 的现在分词: play________ run__________ swim _________make__________ go_________ like________ write________ _ski___________ read________ have_________ sing ________ dance_________ put_________ see________ buy _________ love____________ live_______ take_________ come ________ get_________ stop_________ sit ________ begin________ shop___________ 二、用所给的动词的正确形式填空: 1. The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now. 2. Listen .Some girls _______________ ( sing)in the classroom . 3. My mother _________________ ( cook )some nice food now. 4. What _____ you ______ ( do ) now? 5. Look. They _______________( have) an English lesson . 6. They ____________(not ,water) the flowers now. 7. Look! The girls ________________(dance )in the classroom . 8. What is our granddaughter doing? She _________(listen ) to music. 9. It’s 5 o’clock now. We _____________(have)supper now 10.______Helen____________(wash )clothes? Yes ,she is .
五、一般将来时 1、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或预备做某事。 4

卓越教育 Outstanding Education 句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…), soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。 2、基本结构:①be going to do;②will do. 3、否定句:在 be 动词(am, is, are)后加 not 或情态动词 will 后加 not 成 won’t。 例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon. → I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon. 4、一般疑问句: be 或 will 提到 句首,some 改为 any, and 改为 or,第一二人称互换。 如:We are going to go on an outing this weekend. → Are you going to go on an outing this weekend? 5、特殊疑问句:疑问词+be+主语+going to+动词原形?如:What is Jim going to do? 疑问词当主语时:疑问词+be+going to+动词原形?如:Who is going to play football? 6、同义句:be going to = will do be not going to = won’ t do I am going to go swimming tomorrow. = I will go swimming tomorrow. 7 对划线部分提问。一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分有三种情况。 ⑴ 问人。 Who 例如:I'm going to New York soon. →Who's going to New York soon? ⑵ 问干什么。 What … do.如: My father is going to watch a race with me this afternoon. →What is your father going to do with you this afternoon? ⑶ 问什么时候。When. 如:She's going to go to bed at nine. →When is she going to bed? *题: 填空 1. 我打算明天和朋友去野炊。 I_____ _______ _________ have a picnic with my friends. I ________ have a picnic with my friends. 2.我们将要学*英语 We _____ _______ _________ learn English. We ________ learn English.
六、一般过去时 1.一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时 间状 语连用,如:last year, yesterday, just now, two weeks ago 等。一 般过去时也表示过去经 常或反复发生的动作,常和 often, always 等频率副词 连用。 例如:①I saw him in the street yesterday.。 ②Li Mei always went to school on foot last year. 2.Be 动词在一般过去时中的变化: ⑴am 和 is 在一般过去时中变为 was。(was not=wasn’t) ⑵are 在一般过去时中变为 were。(were not=weren’t) ⑶带有 was 或 were 的句子,其否定、疑问的变 化和 is, am, are 一样,即否定句 在 was 或 were 后加 not,一般疑问句把 was 或 were 调到句首。 3.行为动词的一般过去时 ①肯定句:主语+动词的过 去式+其它。如:He went to the toy store yesterday. ②否定句:didn’t+ 动词原形,如:Jim didn’t go home yesterday. ③一般疑问句:Did+主语+ 动词原形+其它? 如:Did Jim go home yesterday? 5

卓越教育 Outstanding Education ④特殊疑问句:⑴疑问词+did+主语+动词原形? 如:What did Jim do yesterday? ⑵疑问词当主语时:疑问词+动词过去式?如:Who went to home yesterday? 【注】 一般过去时口诀 一般过去时并不难,表示过去动作、状态记心间。 动词要用过 去式,时间状语句末站。 否定句很简单,didn't 站在动词原形前,其它部 分不要变。 一般疑问句也好变,did 放在句子前,主语、动词原形、其它部分 依次站。动词过去式变化规则:1.一般在动词末尾直接加-ed,如:work-worked , cook-cooked 2.结尾是 e 加 d,如:live-lived 3. 末尾只有一个元音字母 和一个辅音字母的重读闭音节, 应双写末尾的辅音字母, 再加-ed,如: stop-stopped 4.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变 y 为 i, 再加-ed,如: study-studied 5.不规则动词过去式:am,is-was, are-were, do-did, see-saw, say-said, give-gave, get-got, go-went, come-came, have-had, eat-ate, take-took, run-ran, sing-sang, put-put, make-made, read-read, write-wrote, draw-drew, drink-drank, swim-swam, sit-sat, fly-flew, ride-rode, speak-spoke, sweep-swept, swim-swam, sit-sat *题: 过去时 练* 一、 写出下列动词的过去式 is\am_________ plant________ are ________ drink_________ play_______ go________ make ________ does_________ dance________ worry________ ask _____ taste_________ eat__________ put ______ kick_________ pass_______ do ________ 二、 用 be 动词的适当形式填空 1. I _______ at school just now. 2. He ________ at the camp last week. 3. We ________ students two years ago. 4. They ________ on the farm a moment ago. 5. Yang Ling ________ eleven years old last year. 6. There ________ an apple on the plate yesterday. 7. There ________ some milk in the fridge on Sunday. 8. The mobile phone _______ on the sofa yesterday evening. 9. I ______ an English teacher now. 10. She _______ happy yesterday. 11. They _______ glad to see each other last month. 三、 用动词的适当形式填空 1. I ______ (watch) a cartoon on Saturday. 2. Her father _______ (read) a newspaper last night. 6

卓越教育 Outstanding Education 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. We _________ to zoo yesterday, we _____ to the park. (go) ______ you _______ (visit) your relatives last Spring Festival? ______ he _______ (fly) a kite on Sunday? Yes, he ______. I ____________ (sweep) the floor yesterday, but my mother ______. What ______ she _______ (find) in the garden last morning? She __________ (find) a beautiful butterfly.
四、用 am, is, are 填空 1. I ______ a boy. ______ you a boy? No, I _____ not. 2. The girl______ Jack's sister. 3. The dog _______ tall and fat. 4. The man with big eyes _______ a teacher. 5. ______ your brother in the classroom? 6. Where _____ your mother? She ______ at home. 7. How _______ your father? 8. Mike and Liu Tao ______ at school. 9. Whose dress ______ this? 10. Whose socks ______ they?
七、Have、Has 和 There be 结构 1、There be 结构包括 there is, there are, there was, there were. 2、意 思都是“有”。 3、和 have、has、had 的区别: (1)There be 句型表示:在某 地有某物(或人) (2)在 there be 句型中,主语是单数,be 动词用 is ; 主语 是复数,be 动词用 are ; 如有 几件物品,be 动词根据最* be 动词的那个名 词决定。 (3)there be 句型的否定句在 be 动词后加 not , 一般疑问句把 be 动词调到句首。 (4)there be 句型与 have(has) 的区别:there be 表示在某 地有某物(或人);have(has) 表 示某人拥有某物。 (5)some 和 any 在 there be 句型中的运用:some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定句或疑 问句。 (6)and 和 or 在 there be 句型中的运用:and 用于肯定句, or 用于否定句或疑问句。 (7) 针对数量提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是: How many + 名词复数 + are there + 介 词短语? How much + 不可数名词 + is there + 介词短语? (8)针对主语 提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是: What’s + 介词短语? (9)There be 结构一 般用在句子的开头,而 have 等词只能用于某一个主语后面。
八、冠词 1、 冠词分类: 英语中冠词有不定冠词和定冠词两种,常放在名词的前面,用来 限定名词的意 义,起泛指或特指的作用。 2、 不定冠词 a / an 的用法: 用在 单数名词的前面,a 用在辅音开头的词前面; an 用在元音开 头的词的前面。
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卓越教育 Outstanding Education (1)表示某一个人或东西,但不具体说明何人或何物。如:There is a dog lying on the ground. (2)表示某类人或事物,以区别于其他种类。如:A elephant is much stronger than a man. (3)表示某类人或事物中的任何一个。如:He is a teacher of English. (4) 表示“一”这个数量。如:There is a table and four chairs in that dining-room. (5)几个用不定冠词的*语: a bit(一点), a little(一点), a few(几个), a lot (许多), a kind of(一种), a pair of(一 副、一双), a number of(大量的), a piece of (一张、一片), half an hour(半 小时), have a good time(玩得开心), have a cold(感冒), make a noise(发 出嘈杂声), have/take a rest 等(休息)一会儿,等等。 3、定冠词 the 的用法: 定冠词 the 用在可数名词的单数或复数或不可数的名词前面。 (1)表示特指的 人或事物。如:The man with a flower in his hand is Jack. (2)指谈话双方 都熟悉的人或事物。如:Look at the blackboard, Lily. (3)复述前面提到过 的人或事物。如:There is a man under the tree. The man is called Robert. (4)表示世界上独一无二的事物。如:The earth turns around the sun. (5) 用在表示方位的名词前面。如:There will be strong wind to the south of the Yangtze River. (6)在序数词和形容词最高级的前面。 如: Who is the first one to go? / Of all the stars, the sun is the nearest to the earth. (在 所有的恒星之中太阳离地球最*) (7)常用在乐器名称的前面。如:He began to play the violin at the age of 5. (8)用在江河、海洋、山脉等名称的前面。 如:I have never been to the Himalaya Mountains. (9)用在含有普通名词的 专有名词的前面。如:He is from the United States of America. (10)用在 姓氏之前表示一家人。如:The Greens are going to Mount Emei next month. (11)same 之前一般用 the。如:Lucy and Lily look the same. (12)几个用定 冠词的*语: at the same time (与此同时),make the bed(铺床),in the end(最 后),all the time(一直),by the way(顺便说一下),on the way(在路上)等等。 4、一些不用冠词的情况: (1)专有名词和(第一次使用)一些不可数名词时前面 通常不用。如:China is a very large country.(中国是个大国) / Man needs air and water.(人类需要空气和水) (2)名词前已有指示、物主或不定代词作定 语时不用。如:My pen is much more expensive than yours. (3)周名,月名或 季节名前一般不用。如:He was born on Monday, February 18,1995. They usually plant trees on the hills in spring. (4)(第一次使用)复数名词表示人或事 物的类别时不用。如:Men are cleverer than monkeys. (5)三餐饭前不用。如: We have breakfast at home and lunch at school.(我们在家吃早饭,在校 吃 午饭) (6)节、 假日前一般不用。 如: On Children’s Day the boys often get presents from their parents. (7)球类名词前不用。如:The children play football on Saturday afternoons. (8)城市的重要/主要建筑物名称前不用。 如:They are now at People’s Cinema. (9)一些*惯用语中不用。如: ⑴ at / to / from / out of / after / for school; ⑵ in / to / for / after class; ⑶in / to / out of / into bed; ⑷ after / at/ from / out of / to work; ⑸ at / to sea; ⑹ in / from / down / to town; ⑺ at / from home; ⑻ at / for / to breakfast/lunch/supper; ⑼ at night/noon/midnight; ⑽ on foot; ⑾ go to school/bed; ⑿ on top of; ⒀ in front of; ⒁on show/display/duty/watch; ⒂ in / out of hospital; ⒃ at all; ⒄ on/in

time; ⒅ at first/last/once; ⒆in Chinese/English; ⒇ take care of 8

卓越教育 Outstanding Education 九、介词 1、介词的主要用法: 介词是一种虚词,不能独立使用。 介词之后一般有名词或 代词(宾格)或相当于名词的其他词 类、短语或从句作它的宾语,即构成介词短 语。有些介词是由两个以上的词构成的短语介词, 如:out of(从?中出来), away from(距离?), next to(在?隔壁), in front of(在?前方)等。 2、介词的分类 表: 地点(位置、范围)介词: after 在?后面, at 在?处, before 在...前, behind 在...后, beside 在...旁边, between 在...之间, from 来自..., in 在...里面, near 靠*..., on 在...上面, outside 在....外 面, under 在... 下方, in front of 在...前, in the middle of 在...的中间, at the back of 在...的后部, 等等。 方向(目标趋向)介词: along 沿着..., around 绕着..., at 朝着..., down 向?下, for 向..., from 从/离..., in 进入..., into 进 入..., near 接*..., off 脱离/除..., out of 向...外, outside 向....外, to 向/朝..., up 向...上, away from 远离... 时间介词: about 大约..., after 在?以后, at 在? (时刻), before 在?以前, for 有?(之久), from 从?(时)起, in 在(上/下午); on 在(某日), past 过了?(时), to 到(下一时刻), 方式介词: as 作为/当作..., by 用/由/乘坐/被..., in 用?(语言), like 与? 一样, on 骑(车)/ 徒(步), with 用(材料),用(手/脚/耳/眼), 涉及介词: about 关于..., in 在?(方面), of?的,有关..., to 对?而言, with 就?而言 其 它介词: 【目的介词】 for 为了..., to 为了? 【比较介词】 as 与?一样,like 象?一样,than 比...,to 与?相比少, 【伴随/状态介词】 at 在(*/休息/上 学/家,etc.),in 穿着?(衣服/颜色), on 在(值日), with 与?一起,有/带着/长 着... 3、介词短语的句法作用: 介词短语相当于一个形容词或副词,可用作状 语、 定语和表语。 如: The man came <down the stairs>.(状)(那个 人走下楼来)/The woman <with a flower on her head> is from the countryside.(定)(头上戴花的妇女来自乡下)/The teacher is now with the students.(表)(老师现在 和学生在一起) 4、介词短语在句子中的位置: 介词 短语做状语时,如果表示时间/地点,可以放在句首或句尾,如果表示方向/方式/ 伴随/ 涉及/原因/目的/比较,一般放在句尾; 介词短语作表语时放在连系动词 之后;介词短语作定 语时,只能放在被修饰的名词之后。如:He wanted to find a good job in Shanghai the next year.(状语)(他想来年在上海找份好工作)/ They searched the room for the thief.(他们在房间里 搜索小偷) / The letters are for you.(表语)(信是给你的)/ Have you seen a cat with a black head and four white legs?(定语)(你看见一只黑头白腿的猫了吗?) 5、重要 注释: ⑴ this / that / these / those / last / next / a / every / each 等词构成的时间短语,前面不用任何 介词。 如: Every year travellers from abroad come to visit Pingyao.(每年都有国外的游客来游览 *窑镇)/ He had a bad cold that week.(那个星期他患重感冒) ⑵ 记住一些固定词组: on foot(步行), at night(在晚上), play with(玩耍??),look out of(朝?外面看), with one’s help(在?的帮助下),look after(照料?),look for(寻找?),on a bike(=by bike)骑车, help sb. with(帮某人做?)等等。 6、某些介词的用法辨 析: 9

卓越教育 Outstanding Education ⑴ 时间或地点介词 in、on、at 的用法区别:表示时间时, in 表示在一段时间 里(在将来时 句子中则表示在一段时间之后), on 表示在具体的某一天或者某 天的上下午等, at 表示在某个 时刻或者瞬间; 表示地点时, in 表示在某个范 围之内, on 表示在某个*面上或与一个面相 接触,at 则表示在某个具体的场 所或地点。如:He was born on the morning of May 10th.(他出 生于五月十 日的早晨)/ I usually get up at 7:00 in the morning.(我通常在早上的七 点钟起床) / His glasses are right on his nose.(他的眼镜就架在他的鼻子 上)/ He is at the cinema at the moment.(此刻他正在电影院) ⑵ after 与 in 表示时间的用法区别:“after+(具体时刻/从句)”表示“在?时刻之后”常用 于 一般时态;“in+(一段时间)” 表示 “在(多久)之后” ,常用于将来时态。 如: He said that he would be here after 6:00.(他说他六点钟之后会来这儿)/ My father is coming back from England in about a month.(我父亲大约一个月 以后从英国回来) ⑶ by、in 与 with 表示方式的用法区别:都可以表示“工具、 手段”,但是 by 主要表示“乘 坐”某个交通工具或“以??方式”, in 表示“使 用”某种语言/文字,with 表示“使用”某 个具体的工具、手段。如:We see with our eyes and walk with our feet.(我们用眼睛看东西,用 双脚走路)/ Please write that article(文章) in English.(请你用英语写那篇文章)/ Let’s go to the zoo by taxi.(我们打的去动物园吧。)/ It was written by Lao She.(那 是老舍写的) ⑸ in front of 与 in the front of: in front of “在?的前 面” , 与 in the front of “在?的前部” 。 如:A car was parking in front of the hall.(大厅跟前停着一辆汽车)/ In the front of the hall stood a big desk. 7、for 用法小结 ①表示“当作、作为” 。如:I like some bread and milk for breakfast. What will we have for supper? 我们晚餐吃什么? ② 表示理由或原因,意为“因为、由于” 。如: Thank you for helping me with my English. 谢谢你帮我学*英语。 Thank you for your last letter. 谢谢 你上次的来信。 ③表示动作的对象或接受者,意为“给??” 、“对?? (而言) ” 。 如: Let me pick it up for you. 让我为你捡起来。 Watching TV too much is bad for your health. 看电视太多有害于你的健康。 ④表示时间、距离,意为 “计、达” 。如: I usually do the running for an hour in the morning. 我早晨通常跑步一小时。 We will stay there for two days. 我们将在那里逗 留两天。 ⑤表示去向、目的,意为“向、往、取、买”等。如: Let's go for a walk. 我们出去散步吧。 I came here for my schoolbag.我来这儿取书 包。 I paid twenty yuan for the dictionary. 我花了 20 元买这本词典。 ⑥ 表示所属关系或用途,意为“为、适于??的” 。如: It's time for school. 到上学的时间了。 Here is a letter for you. 这儿有你的一封信。 ⑦表示“支 持、赞成” 。如: Are you for this plan or against it? 你是支持还是反 对这个计划? ⑧用于一些固定搭配中。如: Who are you waiting for? 你在 等谁? For example, Mr Green is a kind teacher. 比如,格林先生是一位心 地善良的老师。
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卓越教育 Outstanding Education 8、with 用法小结 ①带着,牵着?? (表动作特征) 。如:Run with the kite like this. ②附加、附带着??(表事物特征) 。如:two hamburgers with potato chips ③和?? (某人)一起。 a. 跟某人一起 (居住、 吃、 喝、 玩、 交谈??) 。 如: Now I am in China with my parents. Sometimes we go out to eat with our friends. b. 跟 go, come 连用,有 “加入”到某方的意思。如:Do you want to come with me? ④ 和 play 一起构成短语动词 play with 意为“玩耍??, 玩弄??”如: Two boys are playing with their yo-yos. ⑤与 help 一起构 成 help?with?句式,意为“帮助 (某人) 做 (某事) ” 。如: On Monday and Wednesday, he helps his friends with their English. ⑥表示面部神情, 有“含着??,带着??”如: "I'm late for school," said Sun Yang, with tears in his eyes. ⑦表示 “用??”如:What do the farmers do with your machines? ⑧表示 “对??, 关于??” 。如:What's wrong with it? There's something wrong with my computer.
十、形容词和副词的比较级 A、形容词的比较级 1、形容词比较级在句子中的运用:两个事物或人的比较用 比较级,比较级后面一般带有单 词 than。比较级前面可以用 more, a little 来 修饰表示程度。than 后的人称代词用主格(口语 中可用宾格) 。 2.形容词 加 er 的规则: ⑴一般在词尾加 er ; small-smaller long-longer ⑵以字母 e 结尾,加 r ; ⑶以辅音字母加一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾(除 ow 结 尾),应双写末尾的辅音字母, 再加 er ; big-bigger thin-thinner ⑷以“辅 音字母+y”结尾,先把 y 变 i,再加 er, 如: heavy-heavier (5)两个音节或 两个以上的音节的,在原级前加 more, 如:beautiful-more beautiful 3.不规 则形容词比较级: good-better, bad-worse B、副词的比较级 1.形容词与副 词的区别 (有 be 用形,有形用 be;有动用副,有副用动) ⑴在句子中形容词 一般处于名词之前或 be 动词之后 ⑵副词在句子中最常见的是处于实义动词之 后 2.副词比较级的变化规则基本与形容词比较级相同 (不规则变化: well-better, far-farther) ☆表示两者之间没有差别时,使用句型: 主语(第 一个人物) + 谓语动词 + as + 形容词/副词原级 + as + 第二个人物 +?. 如: Lily ran as slow as an old woman.(莉莉跑得像老太太一样慢) They picked as many apples as the farmers.(他们摘的苹果和农民一样多) ☆表示第一个人比 不上第二个人时,使用句型: 主语(第一个人物) + 谓语动词(否定式) + as + 形 容词/副词原级 + as + 第二个人物+?. 如: Lily did not run as slow as an old woman. (莉莉跑得不像老太太那样慢) They didn’t pick as many apples as the farmers. (他们摘的苹果不如农民多) 11


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